Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate with all parts of the spoken word regardless of its meaning. If a person from the north of Canada says "krangaluktar" you should be able to identify all sounds of the word if your phonological awareness is well developed (krangaluktar means "always" in Eskimo language).
Why it is important?
The development of phonological awareness is essential in later reading learning efforts. Research shows that phonological awareness difficulties predict poor reading (Stanovich, 1986).
Each word consists of the group of sounds and after you put them on the paper we call them letters. It is very obvious that if we want someone to read what is written it is essential to know how the letters sound. This is even more important if the word you need to read you never heard before.
Despite the process of learning alphabet sounds and letters sounds easy, it could be very demanding if you work with non-verbal children.
Global reading of the syllables means that we do not care about sounds that the syllable is created from. We just present the syllable sound as a whole and teach the child to remember them, identify them, pronounce them, point to them, etc.
This way is useful for children that cannot achieve the analysis and synthesis of the syllables.
At this stage, we teach analysis and synthesis of the word. It is one level higher task comparing to the analysis and synthesis of the syllables. After accomplishing this level you can say that the children understand how words are constructed.
Analytical-synthetical lessons may not be available in your language yet.
It means that we do not care about sounds that the word is created from. You just present the word sound as a whole and you teach the child to remember them, identify them, pronounce them, point to them, etc.
This way is useful for children that cannot achieve the analysis and synthesis of the words.
In parallel with learning reading skills, you can teach your child to write letters. Writing practice is a fun activity thanks to digital devices. Sedentary learning can replace physical activity if you use an interactive whiteboard. Children have to stay while writing letters.
In any case, the practice of writing helps with the development of reading - the tablet emits the sound of a vowel before children start writing it.
Writing lessons may not be available in your language yet.
This activity is about increasing the number of words (or simple sentences) that the child can recognize, say, understand, and use. This activity is not limited to nouns but also to other word classes. It directly increases communication quality between the child and family members.
It also offers to build the foundation of a second language for children that lives in bilingual families.
Generalization means that is you see one single butterfly you can recognize any other butterfly anywhere in the world. Another example - once you know the river, you know how all rivers on our planet should look like. Some of them will be wider, faster, variously coloured but they are still the rivers.
Generalization disability is well known from the world of autism. But not only autistic children are affected. Children with Down syndrome as well as mentally disabled children may not be able to use generalization as neurotypical children. This is why they need to train it. Neurotypical individuals can not imagine the inability to generalize.
Teaching other word classes reaches the top of the basic reading and speech understanding skills. The plate could be white, red, or broken. Eggs could be cooked or scrambled. Potatoes could be boiled, grilled, mashed, or even fried. The cars have different colour, manufacturer and body. The cat may walk under the table, over the rug, along the wall, or around the chair. The floor can be cleaned by "him", "her" or "them" etc.
If you educate the children with disabilities you need to teach all these details. Formally they are adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, numbers, etc.